Thursday, May 26, 2016

How to Use Sugar Scrub

How to Use Sugar Scrub

Sugar scrubs are natural exfoliants that can greatly improve the health of your skin. Exfoliation also gives skin a healthy glow, getting rid of toxins and impurities. Frequent use of a sugar scrub makes skin smoother and helps the hydration process. While a regular soap or cleanser may appear to be enough to keep skin clean, only exfoliation removes dead skin cells and excess oil. To exfoliate skin properly using a sugar scrub, it is important to learn about application procedures and the ingredients they contain.

Choosing the Right Exfoliating Scrub

You can use a sugar scrub even if you have extremely dry skin, as these natural products have no negative effects. The glycolic acid produced by sugar is a powerful alpha hydroxy acid capable of loosening dirt and dead skin cells. Natural ingredients used to make sugar scrubs include jojoba, coconut, argan, and almond oils, as well as cocoa and shea butter.
When it comes to all-natural exfoliating products, both salt and sugar scrubs are very popular. The difference between these two types of scrubs is the size of the granules. As sugar has smaller granules that dissolve more easily, it tends to be gentler. Consequently, sugar scrubs work better than salt scrubs on sensitive areas like the face.
On the other hand, salt scrubs can be beneficial if you have calluses, and it contains nourishing minerals that help minimize the signs of aging. Experts often recommend the use of sugar scrubs over salt scrubs, as you can also obtain the benefits of minerals by soaking in a salt bath.

Exfoliating Skin with a Sugar Scrub

To obtain the best results from exfoliation with a sugar scrub, apply the product while taking a shower. First, wash your skin with soap or body wash and rinse it well. Afterwards, apply a sufficient amount of sugar scrub to wet skin over your entire body, massaging in a circular motion to allow the granules to remove dead skin cells. Finally, rinse off well. This makes your skin look and feel refreshed and healthy.

Using Homemade Sugar Scrubs

Homemade sugar scrubs can help exfoliate and moisturize your skin just as well as commercial products.  Homemade sugar scrubs are all natural and do not contain all the chemicals a commercial scrub has in it.
Sugar scrubs are powerful natural exfoliants. They come in many different varieties.Using a sugar scrub once a week is a great way to keep your skin clean and healthy.

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

History of candle making

History of candle making

Candle making was developed independently in many places throughout history.

Candle moulding machine in Indonesiacirca 1920
Candles were made by the Romans beginning about 500 BC. These were true dipped candles and made from tallow. Evidence for candles made from whale fat in China dates back to the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC). In India, wax from boiling cinnamon was used for temple candles.
In parts of Europe, the Middle-East and Africa, where lamp oil made from olives was readily available, candle making remained unknown until the early middle-ages. Candles were primarily made from tallow and beeswax in ancient times, but have been made from spermaceti, purified animal fats (stearin) and paraffin wax in recent centuries


Romans began making true dipped candles from tallow, beginning around 500 BC. While oil lamps were the most widely-used source of illumination in Roman Italy, candles were common and regularly given as gifts during Saturnalia.
Qin Shi Huang (259–210 BC) was the first emperor of the Chinese Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC). His mausoleum, which was rediscovered in the 1990s, twenty-two miles east of Xi'an, contained candles made from whale fat. The word zhú 燭 in Chinese originally meant torch and could have gradually come to be defined as a candle during the Warring States period (403–221 BC); some excavated bronzewares from that era feature a pricket thought to hold a candle.
The Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) Jizhupian dictionary of about 40 BC hints at candles being made of beeswax, while the Book of Jin (compiled in 648) covering the Jin Dynasty (265–420) makes a solid reference to the beeswax candle in regards to its use by the statesman Zhou Yi (d. 322). An excavated earthenware bowl from the 4th century AD, located at the Luoyang Museum, has a hollowed socket where traces of wax were found. Generally these Chinese candles were molded in paper tubes, using rolled rice paper for the wick, and wax from an indigenous insect that was combined with seeds. By the 18th century, novelty Chinese candles had weights built into the sides of candles - as the candle melted, the weights fell off and made a noise as they landed in a bowl. Japanese candles were made from wax extracted from tree nuts.
Wax from boiling cinnamon was used for temple candles in India. Yak butter was used for candles in Tibet.
There is a fish called the eulachon or "candlefish", a type of smelt which is found from Oregon to Alaska. During the 1st century AD, indigenous people from this region used oil from this fish for illumination. A simple candle could be made by putting the dried fish on a forked stick and then lighting it.

Middle Ages

The oldest surviving bees wax candles north of the Alps from the alamannic graveyard of Oberflacht, Germany dating to 6th/7th century A.D.
After the collapse of the Roman empire, trading disruptions made olive oil, the most common fuel for oil lamps, unavailable throughout much of Europe. As a consequence, candles became more widely used. By contrast, in North Africa and the Middle East, candle-making remained relatively unknown due to the availability of olive oil.
Candles were commonplace throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. Candle makers (known as chandlers) made candles from fats saved from the kitchen or sold their own candles from within their shops. The trade of the chandler is also recorded by the more picturesque name of "smeremongere", since they oversaw the manufacture of sauces, vinegar, soap and cheese. The popularity of candles is shown by their use in Candlemas and in Saint Lucy festivities.
Tallow, fat from cows or sheep, became the standard material used in candles in Europe. The unpleasant smell of tallow candles is due to the glycerine they contain. The smell of the manufacturing process was so unpleasant that it was banned by ordinance in several European cities. Beeswax was discovered to be an excellent substance for candle production without the unpleasant odor, but remained restricted in usage for the rich and for churches and royal events, due to their great expense.
In England and France, candle making had become a guild craft by the 13th century. The Tallow Chandlers Company of London was formed in about 1300 in London, and in 1456 was granted a coat of arms. The Wax Chandlers Company dating from about 1330, acquired its charter in 1484. By 1415, tallow candles were used in street lighting. The first candle mould comes from 15th century Paris.

Modern era

'Colonial'-style tapered candle molds
With the growth of the whaling industry in the 18th century, spermaceti, an oil that comes from a cavity in the head of the sperm whale, became a widely used substance for candle making. The spermaceti was obtained by crystallizing the oil from the sperm whale and was the first candle substance to become available in mass quantities. Like beeswax, spermaceti wax did not create a repugnant odor when burned, and produced a significantly brighter light. It was also harder than either tallow or beeswax, so it would not soften or bend in the summer heat. The first "standard candles" were made from spermaceti wax.
By 1800, an even cheaper alternative was discovered. Colza oil, derived from Brassica campestris, and a similar oil derived from rapeseed, yielded candles that produce clear, smokeless flames. The French chemists Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786–1889) and Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850) patented stearin, in 1811. Like tallow, this was derived from animals, but had no glycerine content.


Joseph Morgan's candle making machine revolutionized candle making
The manufacture of candles became an industrialized mass market in the mid 19th century. In 1834, Joseph Morgan, a pewterer from Manchester, England, patented a machine that revolutionised candle making. It allowed for continuous production of molded candles by using a cylinder with a moveable piston to eject candles as they solidified. This more efficient mechanized production produced about 1,500 candles per hour, (according to his patent ". . with three men and five boys [the machine] will manufacture two tons of candle in twelve hours"). This allowed candles to become an easily affordable commodity for the masses.

Price's Candles became the largest candle manufacturer in the world by the end of the 19th century
At this time, candlemakers also began to fashion wicks out of tightly braided (rather than simply twisted) strands of cotton. This technique makes wicks curl over as they burn, maintaining the height of the wick and therefore the flame. Because much of the excess wick is incinerated, these are referred to as "self-trimming" or "self-consuming" wicks.
In the mid-1850s, James Young succeeded in distilling paraffin wax from coal and oil shales at Bathgate in West Lothian and developed a commercially viable method of production. The Paraffin wax was processed by distilling residue left after crude petroleum was refined.
Paraffin could be used to make inexpensive candles of high quality. It was a bluish-white wax, burned cleanly, and left no unpleasant odor, unlike tallow candles. A drawback to the substance was that early coal- and petroleum-derived paraffin waxes had a very low melting point. The introduction of stearin, discovered by Michel Eugène Chevreul, solved this problem. Stearin is hard and durable, with a convenient melting range of 54–72.5 °C (129.2–162.5 °F). By the end of the 19th century, most candles being manufactured consisted of paraffin and stearic acid.
By the late 19th century, Price's Candles, based in London was the largest candle manufacturer in the world. The company traced its origins back to 1829, when William Wilson invested in 1,000 acres (4 km²) of coconut plantation in Sri Lanka. His aim was to make candles from coconut oil. Later he tried palm oil from palm trees. An accidental discovery swept all his ambitions aside when his son George Wilson, a talented chemist, distilled the first petroleum oil in 1854. George also pioneered the implementation of the technique of steam distillation, and was thus able to manufacture candles from a wide range of raw materials, including skin fat, bone fat, fish oil and industrial greases.
In America, Syracuse, New York developed into a global center for candle manufacturing from the mid-nineteenth century. Manufacturers included Will & Baumer, Mack Miller, Muench Kruezer, and Cathedral Candle Company.

Decline of the candle industry

Candles here are used to celebrate a birthday
Despite advances in candle making, the candle industry declined rapidly upon the introduction of superior methods of lighting, including kerosene and lamps and the 1879 invention of the incandescent light bulb.
From this point on, candles came to be marketed as more of a decorative item. Candles became available in a broad array of sizes, shapes and colors, and consumer interest in scented candles began to grow. During the 1990s, new types of candle waxes were being developed due to an unusually high demand for candles. Paraffin, a by-product of oil, was quickly replaced by new waxes and wax blends due to rising costs.
Candle manufacturers looked at waxes such as soy, palm and flax-seed oil, often blending them with paraffin in hopes of getting the performance of paraffin with the price benefits of the other waxes. The creation of unique wax blends, now requiring different fragrance chemistries and loads, placed pressure for innovation on the candle wick manufacturing industry to meet performance needs with the often tougher to burn formulations. 

Bath Salts

Bath salts

This article is about salts used when bathing. For the designer drugs, see Bath salts (drug).
Bath salts
Bath salts are water-soluble, pulverised minerals that are added to water to be used for bathing. They are said to improve cleaning, enhance the enjoyment of bathing, and serve as a vehicle for cosmetic agents. Bath salts have been developed which mimic the properties of natural mineral baths or hot springs.


The "salts" part of the name comes from their appearance being similar to the crystals of common salt.
Substances often labeled as bath salts include magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts), sodium chloride (table salt), sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), sodium hexametaphosphate(Calgon, amorphous/glassy sodium metaphosphate), sodium sesquicarbonateborax, and sodium citrate.
Glycerin, or liquid glycerin, is another common ingredient in bath salts. Its health and beauty benefits allow it to be classified as an emollienthumectant or lubricant when used in bath salts products.
Fragrances and colors are often added to bath salts; in fact, one purpose of salts is as a vehicle or diluent to extend fragrances which are otherwise too potent for convenient use. Other common additives to bath salts are oils (agglomerating the salts to form amorphous granules, the product being called "bath beads" or "bath oil beads"), foaming agents, and effervescent agents.
Bath salts may be packaged for sale in boxes or bags. Their appearance is often considered attractive or appealing, and they may be sold in transparent containers, showing off, for example, the needlelike appearance of sodium sesquicarbonate crystals.


The earliest systematic exposition of the different kinds of salts, their uses, and methods of extraction was published in China around 2700 years BCEHippocrates encouraged his fellow healers to make use of salt water to heal various ailments by immersing their patients in sea water. The ancient Greeks continued this, and in 1753 English author and physician Charles Russel published "The Uses of Sea Water".


Some bath salts such as phosphates have a detergent action that softens calloused skin and aids in exfoliation. Some bath salts act as water softeners and change the way soap rinses. Some confusion may arise after a first experience with soft water. Soap does not lather well with hard water and can leave a sticky feeling. Soft water lathers better than hard water but feels slippery for a longer time during rinsing of soap, even though the soap is coming off faster, because the soap remains soluble.
High concentrations of salts increase the density of the water and increase buoyancy, which makes the body feel lighter in the bath. Very high concentrations of salts in water are used in many isolation tanktherapies. Researchers have also studied their use in treating arthritis.

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Soap Making Part 3

Part 3

The Manufacturing

The kettle method of making soap is still used today by small soap manufacturing companies. This process takes from four to eleven days to complete, and the quality of each batch is inconsistent due to the variety of oils used. Around 1940, engineers and scientists developed a more efficient manufacturing process, called the continuous process. This procedure is employed by large soap manufacturing companies all around the world today. Exactly as the name states, in the continuous process soap is produced continuously, rather than one batch at a time. Technicians have more control of the production in the continuous process, and the steps are much quicker than in the kettle methodit takes only about six hours to complete a batch of soap.

The Kettle Process


  • 1 Fats and alkali are melted in a kettle, which is a steel tank that can stand three stories high and hold several thousand pounds of material. Steam coils within the kettle heat the batch and bring it to a boil. After boiling, the mass thickens as the fat reacts with the alkali, producing soap and glycerin.


  • 2 The soap and glycerin must now be separated. The mixture is treated with salt, causing the soap to rise to the top and the glycerin to settle to the bottom. The glycerin is extracted from the bottom of the kettle.

Strong change

  • 3 To remove the small amounts of fat that have not saponified, a strong caustic solution is added to the kettle. This step in the process is called "strong change." The mass is brought to a boil again, and the last of the fat turns to soap. The batch may be given another salt treatment at this time, or the manufacturer may proceed to the next step.


  • 4 The next step is
  •  called "pitching." The soap in the kettle is boiled again with added water. The mass eventually separates into two layers. The top layer is called "neat soap," which is about 70% soap and 30% water. The lower layer, called "nigre," contains most of the impurities in the soap such as dirt and salt, as well as most of the water. The neat soap is taken off the top. The soap is then cooled. The finishing process is the same as for soap made by the continuous process.
  • The Continuous Process


    • 1 The first step of the continuous process splits natural fat into fatty acids and glycerin. The equipment used is a vertical stainless steel column with the diameter of a barrel called a hydrolizer. It may be as tall as 80 feet (24 m). Pumps and meters attached to the column allow precise measurements and control of the process. Molten fat is pumped into one end of the column, while at the other end water at high temperature (266°F [130°C]) and pressure is introduced. This splits the fat into its two components. The fatty acid and glycerin are pumped out continuously as more fat and water enter. The fatty acids are then distilled for purification.


    • 2 The purified fatty acids are next mixed with a precise amount of alkali to form soap. Other ingredients such as abrasives and fragrance are also mixed in. The hot liquid soap may be then whipped to incorporate air.

    Cooling and finishing

    • 3 The soap may be poured into molds and allowed to harden into a large slab. It may also be cooled in a special freezer. The slab is cut into smaller pieces of bar size, which are then stamped and wrapped. The entire continuous process, from splitting to finishing, can be accomplished in several hours.
    • Milling

      • 4 Most toiletry soap undergoes additional processing called milling. The milled bar lathers up better and has a finer consistency than non-milled soap. The cooled soap is fed through several sets of heavy rollers (mills), which crush and knead it. Perfumes can best be incorporated at this time because their volatile oils do not evaporate in the cold mixture. After the soap emerges from the mills, it is pressed into a smooth cylinder and extruded. The extruded soap is cut into bar size, stamped and wrapped.


      Glycerin is a very useful byproduct of soap manufacture. It is used to make hand lotion, drugs, and nitroglycerin, the main component of explosives such as dynamite.

      Where To Learn More

    • Books

      Cavitch, Susan M. The Natural Soap Book: Making Herbal and Vegetable-Based Soaps. Storey Communications, 1995.
      Maine, Sandy. The Soap Book: Simple Herbal Recipes. Interweave Press, 1995.
      Spitz, Luis, ed. Soap Technologies in the 1990s. American Oil Chemists Society, 1990.


      About Soap. Procter & Gamble, 1990. (513) 983-1100.
      Sheila Dow
    • Dow, Sheila. "Soap." How Products Are Made. 1996. Retrieved May 24, 2016 from
    • Thanks to the for helping provide this information.

Soap Making Part 2

Part 2

Raw Materials

Soap requires two major raw materials: fat and alkali. The alkali most commonly used today is sodium hydroxide. Potassium hydroxide can also be used. Potassium-based soap creates a more water-soluble product than sodium-based soap, and so it is called "soft soap." Soft soap, alone or in combination with sodium-based soap, is commonly used in shaving products.
Animal fat in the past was obtained directly from a slaughterhouse. Modern soapmakers use fat that has been processed into fatty acids. This eliminates many impurities, and it produces as a byproduct water instead of glycerin. Many vegetable fats, including olive oil, palm kernel oil, and coconut oil, are also used in soap making.
Additives are used to enhance the color, texture, and scent of soap. Fragrances and perfumes are added to the soap mixture to cover the odor of dirt and to leave behind a fresh-smelling scent. Abrasives to enhance the texture of soap include talc, silica, and marble pumice (volcanic ash). Soap made without dye is a dull grey or brown color, but modern manufacturers color soap to make it more enticing to the consumer.

Soap Making Part 1

Part 1


Soap is a combination of animal fat or plant oil and caustic soda. When dissolved in water, it breaks dirt away from surfaces. Through the ages soap has been used to cleanse, to cure skin sores, to dye hair, and as a salve or skin ointment. But today we generally use soap as a cleanser or perfume.

The exact origins of soap are unknown, though Roman sources claim it dates back to at least 600 b.c., when Phoenicians prepared it from goat's tallow and wood ash. Soap was also made by the Celts, ancient inhabitants of Britain. Soap was used widely throughout the Roman empire, primarily as a medicine. Mention of soap as a cleanser does not appear until the second century a.d. By the eighth century, soap was common in France, Italy, and Spain, but it was rarely used in the rest of Europe until as late as the 17th century.

Manufacture of soap began in England around the end of the 12th century. Soap-makers had to pay a heavy tax on all the soap they produced. The tax collector locked the lids on soap boiling pans every night to prevent illegal soap manufacture after hours. Because of the high tax, soap was a luxury item, and it did not come into common use in England until after the tax was repealed in 1853. In the 19th century, soap was affordable and popular throughout Europe.
Early soap manufacturers simply boiled a solution of wood ash and animal fat. A foam substance formed at the top of the pot. When cooled, it hardened into soap. Around 1790, French soapmaker Nicolas Leblanc developed a method of extracting caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) from common table salt (sodium chloride), replacing the wood ash element of soap. The French chemist Eugene-Michel Chevreul put the soap-forming process (called in English saponification) into concrete chemical terms in 1823. In saponification, the animal fat, which is chemically neutral, splits into fatty acids, which react with alkali carbonates to form soap, leaving glycerin as a byproduct. Soap was made with industrial processes by the end of the 19th century, though people in rural areas, such as the pioneers in the western United States, continued to make soap at home.